FIRST EVER BOOK SIGNING: Portage, MI July 6

Have I “arrived”?

I’m not only a published author, but I am also having a book signing event. This is craziness.

On July 6, at Don’s Card Hut in Portage, Michigan, from 1-2 PM, I will be taking photos and signing books for anyone who wants to purchase a copy of one of my four published books, such as volumes 1-3 of A Historical Tour of Walt Disney World and Walt Disney and the 1964-1965 New York World’s Fair: Great Moments.

I would love to see anyone who can make it to show up and visit! Visit my events page at www.KisteTheHistorian.com/events for more information!

An Opportunity to Invest

Would you like to partner with me to make book 2 of Walt Disney and the 1964-1965 New York World’s Fair a reality?

In an effort to ensure that the story of the Ford Magic Skyway is told fully, I am in need of traveling to The Henry Ford in Dearborn, Michigan and the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles to access archival documents. Unfortunately, both opportunities for travel are expensive. I am asking the community to support a small portion of travel expenses to fund hotel and transportation (airfare) to LA as to conduct this research.

All contributors will be acknowledged with a word of thanks in the next book. There are also numerous rewards that investors can take advantage of, including signed copies of Great Moments and the Historical Tour of Walt Disney World book series.

Click on the embedded page below to see how YOU can help bring the story of Disney’s role in the ‘64 New York World’s Fair into reality!

A Peek behind the Curtain of a Disney History Book: A Historical Tour of Walt Disney World

As an author, particularly one writing in the genre of nonfiction and history, I come under constant scrutiny and criticism from readers.

This is even more true when you write about a topic readers are passionate about like Walt Disney World.

Let's be real: as someone reading my blog, you've more than likely frequented WDW message boards or DisTwitter and have seen various posts by Disney fans who disagree over what the outside world would see as ridiculousness (such as whether resort mugs should have handles or not or whether Disneyland should replace its "classic" Tower of Terror attraction with a Guardians of the Galaxy overlay) that may contribute to why many Disney muggles (those not privy of Disney fandom) see us fans as crazy. There are even people on Twitter that I've unfollowed due to their constant scathing remarks, oftentimes making personal attacks on people for their differing opinions on the state of the Disney parks (I don't need that negativity in my life).

Some of this feedback on my books has come in the form of comments on blogs and letters to my publisher. However, the most damning comments has been reviews of my books, officially published on Amazon.

Some of these negative reviews are on the level of ridiculous. One reviewer states that "Any book that contains a historic look at WDW, wich the book seems to be, should knoe that the word is imagniears. How many volumes are set to. Be forthcoming? It would be a shame that it is onlt one. Please hire an editor." Obviously this reviewer does not know what they are talking about, as the appropriate term actually is Imagineer. Some of my students who have read my reviews have even noted the awful spelling and grammar that this reviewer uses, which negates many of their scathing remarks.


Other reviews have marked me negatively on Amazon when their real problem was the formatting of the book. For example, "The book was smaller than I imagined it would be. It's a good simple history, though it could benefit from some greater depth. The writing is good and the approach is fantastic, but it is sometimes lacking in depth. Nonetheless, I look forward to volume 2 (and further histories of the Disney rides and attractions)." The main problem this reviewer had with my book was that it was too small. I'm a historian and love reading history books. However (and this sounds bad coming from its author), my book was incredibly detailed, especially the chapters on Carousel of Progress and Pirates of the Caribbean, to the point where I can't remember half the details I wrote about.


However, it may be this review that upset me the most: "Unfortunately, I can't even finish this one. Its another in a line from Bob McLlain that shows the downward slide of the publisher, lack of editing, and misinformation. Within the first two chapters I made several notes on factual errors. For example, the roof of the Tiki Room is not made of thatch, but metal designed to look like thatch. It serves as a large lightening rod. The evening parade does not cut off the Adventureland, as the parade runs from Main Street to Frontierland, with exit available by entering the emporium near Casey's and exiting near the Firehouse. Exit is available between float units. On top of errors, this reads like an essay from a college student using Wikipedia."

As a history teacher, amateur historian, and someone who worked for four years in my university library as a research deskie, this review was incredibly offending. And this wasn't the only review to accuse me of using Wikipedia for my research.

Now, to be fair, there are times when doing quick research or looking up quick facts, it is okay to use Wikipedia. For example, if you are trying to figure out the date that Al Jolson's The Jazz Singer referred to by John, the father in Carousel of Progress, was released (1927), Wikipedia is an okay resource to use. Or if you are trying to get a quick summary of the story of "Sleepy Hollow" (spoilers for Volume 3!), Wikipedia can be an easy tool. However, when doing historical research in needing specific details, one needs to use more academic research than a typical online encyclopedia.


So what is the process through which I researched my two books? It may be easier to provide you with an excerpt from one of my books and then break apart the text to explain the process to you.

The following is an excerpt from A Historical Tour of WDW Volume 2 and is taken from the chapter about Spaceship Earth at Epcot:


           The background mural that is painted behind the horses and three men can be pinpointed to an exact place in the Roman Empire, which provides the viewer with some historical context of when and where the scene is taking place. The mural depicts a large Roman city, stretching off into the distance, while a series of buildings and statues are identifiable nearby. To the left of the scene, behind the horse-drawn chariot, are a series of statues capping Roman pillars, stretching on the left side of an avenue. Behind the tall statues is a building with columns holding up the roof with a triangular-shaped pediment. On the opposite side of the scene, behind the slave holding the reigns of the horse, is another series of statues atop pillars, while statues of mounted horsemen are rearing on a platform alongside steps leading up to the scene. Behind the horsemen is a series of buildings with columned facades, one with a triangular pediment and the other capped with a dome. The avenue surrounded by the pillared statues identifies the location as being in the Roman Forum, the headquarters for government and mercantile activity in the capital of the Roman Empire, the city of Rome (located in modern-day Italy). However, it is the location of the pedimented and domed buildings and the presence of the rearing horsemen that identify where the three gentlemen are congregated: the Temple of Castor and Pollux. The temple was built in 495 BC and dedicated in 484 BC, thanking the twin sons of the Roman god, Jupiter, for their assistance in the victory in battle. Interestingly enough, the actual statues of Castor and Pollux that are depicted in the scene’s background mural are not historically accurate: the scene shows them riding on the backs of rearing horses, while in actuality they were holding the reigns of the rearing horses.

Photo Credit: Melissa Knight

Photo Credit: Melissa Knight

Photo Credit: Melissa Knight

Photo Credit: Melissa Knight

              The location of the Praetorian receiving a proclamation from the Senator on the steps of the Temple of Castor and Pollux can also help to locate the date or period in which the scene is taking place. However, there is some discrepancy: one possibility would lead to historical inaccuracy, while the other is more plausible. During the time of the Roman Republic, from the temple’s dedication in 484 BC until 27 BC when Augustus established the Roman Empire, the Temple of Castor and Pollux served as the meeting place for the Senate, where they would make legal decisions and establish laws for the whole of the Republic. However, the placement of this scene during this era of Roman history does not fit, as the statue of Augustus holding the scroll that precedes this scene was not constructed until 20 BC. Thus, the statue makes this theory, that of the Temple being used as a meeting place for the Senate, unlikely. More likely is the second theory; from 37-41 AD, the Temple of Castor and Pollux was used as the palace of Caligula, who served as Caesar during a short three years and ten months. These was partially because Caligula would, on occasion, present himself at the top of the steps, making speeches, and attempt to personify himself as a god to be worshipped, in addition to his role as Roman emperor. This storyline for the scene would likely be more accurate, as the reign of Caligula took place twenty-three years after that of Augustus, which would maintain the historical integrity of the Temple of Castor and Pollux being the setting of the scene after the vehicles pass the statue of Augustus. While the important man handing the message off to the Praetorian is not Caligula, as evidenced by the Senatorial robe he is wearing, Senators and the emperors worked closely in regards to one another, and it is likely that he is delivering a message on behalf of Caesar Caligula.

A bust of Emperor Caligula

A bust of Emperor Caligula

The presence of these three men standing on the steps of the Temple of Castor and Pollux identify what may be going on in this scene, which, intentional by Imagineers or not, represents a dark event in the history of the Roman Empire. During the reign of Caligula, the Praetorian Guard began to amass political power. At the same time, Caligula increasingly began to treat the Senate and other high-powered individuals in the government of the Roman Empire, causing many to begin conspiring against him. In 40 AD, Caligula announced that he would be moving to Alexandria, which was the center of Roman power along the Nile River in Egypt. His goal in moving to Egypt would be to gain more power and following from people, as those in Egypt worshipped their leaders as gods. As a result, Caligula planned on ruling the Roman Empire from the city of Rome, which was the traditional center of Roman government and administration, to Alexandria, which was in a land looked down upon by the Roman government because the people there were not “true Romans,” having been born outside the capital. As a result, the Roman Senate began to conspire with the Praetorian Guard to assassinate Caligula, which occurred in 41 AD; he was stabbed thirty times while addressing a group at an athletic event. The Senators, realizing how much the government had strayed from what they perceived as the glories of Rome’s “golden age,” planned to reestablish the Roman republic after Caligula’s death, thus giving them their political power back, which had been taken away when the Roman Empire was established. However, after being driven from the city, Caligula’s uncle, Claudius, exacted revenge on those who conspired and committed the assassination, and later naming himself the next Caesar of the Roman Empire. With these details in mind, this scene may actually be a Senator and Praetorian Guard passing messages between those conspiring to assassinate the emperor.

So let's break this scene down, shall we? Oftentimes when analyzing an attraction for my books, I utilize Google and YouTube to get started, as well as my extensive experience and background knowledge on the parks, attractions, or resorts being analyzed. Spaceship Earth is one of my all-time favorite attractions and must-dos: in fact, I often ride it multiple times a trip. The Rome scene has always been a highlight of the attraction for me for a few reasons, including the "Rome Burning" smell (which after the addition of Dame Judi Dench doesn't even represent the fall of Rome anymore, but rather the burning of the Library of Alexandria in Egypt...read Vol. 2 to learn more), as well as the old projections of the charioted soldiers riding through the streets of Rome on the painted backdrop of the scene during the Jeremy Irons version of the attraction.

Step one of attraction analysis usually involves me finding the most updated video of the attraction on YouTube. I sit and watch the attraction online usually in its entirety first, and then I'll break the video down scene-by-scene or even frame-by-frame to analyze the details, music, backdrops, and dialogue.

For this scene, I used my historical  background knowledge to realize that the backdrop of the attraction, as well as the monologue of Dench explains that this is during the time of the Roman Empire, which places the scene during the timeframe of sometime between 27 BC and 476 CE, the span of a little more than 500 years. Dench's monologue explains that Rome created a system of roads to help run the bureaucracy of its empire. This places the scene somewhere in the city of Rome itself. As a historian and teacher, I know that the majority of Rome's central authority took place in the Roman Forum, which was the hub of government and religion in the city of ancient Rome.

The  real   Roman Forum.

The real Roman Forum.

I decided to Google the Roman Forum to see if I could find any pictures, maps, or depictions of what I saw in the background of the scene. Most identifiable are the tall pillars capped with individuals stretching on the left and right side of the scene and leading away from the location of the scene. Based on the position of the other buildings, specifically those with the triangular topped roofs, I was able to identify that riders were in fact passing the Roman Forum. I was able to figure out that the location of the buildings placed the guests as viewing the Forum from the porch of the Temple of Castor and Pollux, two Roman gods. I Googled a picture of what archaeologists believe the Temple would have looked like during the time of the empire, which confirmed that this was in fact what was being depicted: the temple had a series of steps leading down to the Forum with statues on either side of the steps. As mentioned above, however, the statues were not accurate; it is possible that Imagineers and designers of the attraction wanted to portray the brothers in a more dramatic fashion, mounted atop rearing horses rather than simply standing alongside them holding the reigns.

The  real  statues of Castor and Pollux, not depicted accurately in the attraction's mural.

The real statues of Castor and Pollux, not depicted accurately in the attraction's mural.

The real statues of Castor and Pollux, not depicted accurately in the attraction's mural.

Ok, so I was able to narrow down where the scene was, but 500 years is a lot of time. To narrow this down, I looked at the costumes of the animatronics. One of the figures was obviously meant to be a Roman soldier, as he is standing near a chariot and is wearing the armor of a Roman soldier. A second figure is a slave, based on the basic toga he is wearing, as well as his haircut and the paleness of his skin. However, it was the third figure in the scene, wearing a garment with a purple stripe, that was interesting to me. Because of the toga with the royal color, I was able to identify this figure not as an individual but as a part of a group: he was a Roman senator. But this made the mystery only deepen. Why would a Roman senator be handing a scroll to a soldier who would be using the roads?

I Googled for the history of the Temple of Castor and Pollux and found something quite interesting and slightly shocking: the emperor Caligula, who reigned in Rome as Caesar from 37-41 CE, actually used the Temple of Castor and Pollux as part of his palace. This angered many in the bureaucracy of the Roman Empire, including the Senators. The Senators, fuming from this sacrilege of government using religious buildings, called upon a group of soldiers called the Praetorian Guard to help rid Rome of the "corrupt" emperor. Caligula had also planned on moving the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to the city of Alexandria, located at the mouth of the Nile River on the Mediterranean. This also angered many Roman government officials who foresaw the fall of their empire by moving the capital from its traditional, centralized location to a place on the outskirts. I did some crosschecking and research on the Praetorian Guard to learn that the armor worn by the soldier receiving the proclamation was a close match to that which would be worn by the elite military group responsible for the assassination of Emperor Caligula.


As a result of the many details in the scene, I made the educated assumption that, whether intentional or not, Imagineers had actually depicted a secret murder in the classic Epcot attraction. While many viewed the pre-Jack Sparrow version of Pirates of the Caribbean as politically incorrect (the "pooped pirate" searching for his new bride, the pirates chasing the townswomen, Carlos being tortured for the location of the town's treasury), this scene is actually quite darker, representing the assassination of a government official (through death by being stabbed 39 times). However, the dim lighting of the scene, as well as the short period of being in the scene (a grand total of 23 seconds), and guests' overall lack of knowledge of the nitty-gritties of ancient Rome leads the details of this scene's backstory to pass over the heads of many.

Who is that scholar in the middle???

Who is that scholar in the middle???

So there you have it, folks. A brief glimpse into the way research was done for my books. While I'm a total history nerd, I have had to track down a number of historical tangents to find evidence to support my arguments for one detail (i.e. where was the Arab scholar with the onion-shaped turban actually from???). Maybe this is why it seems as though my book is a walking Wikipedia article...I was required to tie together a great number of seemingly-unconnected details to create historical backstories of classic and favorite Disney World attractions, land, and restaurants.

Excerpt from A Historical Tour of Walt Disney World v.1: Pirates of the Caribbean

One of the best parts of writing the volumes of A Historical Tour of Walt Disney World is the research that I do. In college, I worked at the reference desk of the university library, helping students, community members, and professors on research, utilizing the databases, microfilms, microfiche, and stacks to find the information they needed for papers, essays, and monographs. It was a fascinating job and one that has definitely helped me in finding the information I needed to complete my first two volumes of my book.

However, through my research, I've learned the different layers of history that went into the attractions--things that Imagineers didn't have to include. While a teacher who went through four-and-a-half years of history instruction in college, there was a lot about different attractions' details that I was completely unaware of. Take, for example, Pirates of the Caribbean: I would not have known any different if the buildings in the attraction were simple stucco with red clay tile roofs. But Imagineers didn't stop there: they layered detail upon detail to ensure the accuracy and complete story immersion for guests aboard the attraction. This has created a deeper experience for me as a resort guest. Now, while I'm a total nerd (and not just a Disney or history nerd, either), I don't spend the tennish minutes aboard the ride vehicle drifting through the Caribbean waters saying to myself, "Hey, that's Spanish Gothic architecture!" or "What a lovely bellcote!" However, possessing an understanding of these things allows me to place myself in the specific space and time the attraction takes place, to, just for a few minutes, suspend my disbelief and fully enjoy the attraction.

Below, you'll find the first part of my chapter on Pirates of the Caribbean from A Historical Tour of Walt Disney World Vol. 1. My hope is that this will give you a feel for the level of depth and research that went into the writing of these books and will inspire you, if not to read what I've put together, to do some of your own research to enrich your experience at the Walt Disney World parks and resorts.

My first book, A Historical Tour of Walt Disney World, Vol. 1

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“Yo ho, yo ho, a pirate’s life for me!”

These nine words constitute one of the most popular attraction soundtracks for any Disney guest at four Disney resorts around the world. Guests board twenty-four passenger boats, sail through a series of caves, past a ship battling with a Spanish fort, and through a Caribbean town being ransacked, and eventually burned, by a rowdy group of flamboyantly dressed, earring-wearing, drunk, pirates speaking the stereotypical vocabulary of legends.

            The idea for a pirate-themed attraction began early in the developmental stages for Walt Disney’s first theme park, Disneyland, which opened in 1955. Due to the success of the Walt Disney Productions film, Treasure Island starring Bobby Driscoll as Jim Hawkins and Robert Newton as Long John Silver in 1950, Walt decided he wanted some sort of attraction where guests could walk through a wax museum depicting pirates engaging in different roguish situations, such as ransacking a town. Because of the complexity and evolution of the attraction, the attraction did not open with the park in October of 1955. Shortly after the park’s opening to the public, Disney and his Imagineers began working on a series of pavilions for the 1964 New York World’s Fair for companies such as Pepsi, General Electric, and the state of Illinois (which would feature attractions such as ‘it’s a small world’, Carousel of Progress, and Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln, respectively). Throughout this process, the Imagineers developed what became known as Audio Animatronics, a form of robotic figure that looked and behaved like a human, while at the same time, able to perform for hours on end. Disney decided quickly to evolve his wax museum pirate attraction into some sort of ride-through attraction with Audio Animatronic pirates, giving thousands of Disney guests the classic attraction that exists today.

But how accurate is this beloved attraction? Are the events, locations, and characters true to history or based heavily on the myths of Blackbeard, Davy Jones, and Long John Silver?

            The story behind Disney theme park attractions begins before guests even step foot into the attraction building. This is no different when guests approach the Pirates of the Caribbean attraction at Walt Disney World’s Magic Kingdom theme park. Pirates of the Caribbean is located in Adventureland, one of seven themed “lands” or areas of Walt Disney World’s first theme park, which opened in 1971. On the border of where Adventureland and Frontierland meet stands the area once known as Caribbean Plaza, complete with light brown stucco buildings roofed with red clay shingles. However, the focal point of this area is the Pirates of the Caribbean show building, dominated by a tall clock tower. In 2006, shortly after the release of the film, Pirates of the Caribbean: Curse of the Black Pearl, starring Johnny Depp as Captain Jack Sparrow, the ride was refurbished, featuring the addition of elements from the film. A mast featuring a black sail and the skeleton of a pirate was added to the front of the building, while a banner quoting some lyrics from the ride’s well-known soundtrack was painted on the building.       


Exterior Architecture

The façade of the building is loosely based on El Castillo de San Juan del Morro, a Spanish fort that dominates the coastline of Puerto Rico just outside the capital of San Juan. Also known as El Castillo del Morro, the fort was built in 1539 by the Spanish conquerors of Puerto Rico and was used to protect the city of San Juan and its harbor from sea bound attackers. Over the next few hundred years, the fort and its walls were improved upon, adding thickness to the walls and, eventually, a lighthouse. The exterior architecture of the show building and the design of the buildings throughout the ride is consistent with the Gothic architecture of seventeenth and eighteenth century Spanish Caribbean colonies.

            While El Castillo del Morro is located on the island of Puerto Rico, the architecture on the exterior of the Pirates show building and that of the sets in each of the show scenes is most consistent with the Spanish colonial architecture found on the islands of Cuba and the Dominican Republic. For example, transverse mason arches are used throughout the façade and queue of the attraction. A transverse mason arch is an archway where blocks are arranged in an arch, running from one wall or column to another. The block at the tip of the arch is situated at a ninety-degree angle to the blocks adjacent to the columns or walls, with the blocks between the edges and tip are tilted at varying degrees.

            Another form of architecture that is featured in the attraction and consistent with Spanish colonial architecture during the 1700s is the nave arcade entryway. A nave arcade is a stretch of a room lined by columns linking arches. This architectural feature was often used to make a room appear larger than it truly was. The nave arcade architecture can be found in the open-air entrance of the attraction queue, leading up to the actual entrance of the building. Large columns hold up the ceiling, supporting arches, and leading up to the large double doors of the fortress.

            Also common in colonial Cuban architecture was the decorative roofing and roof lines. Many of the important buildings (such as churches, palaces, and other governmental buildings) had roofs with red clay shingles, which helped keep the interior of the buildings cool during hot days. Beneath the clay shingles were long timber rafters spaced a few feet apart. Both of these architectural features can be found on the exterior of the show building.

Below the roofline of clay tiles, the ceiling would be held up by timber rafters that provide the structural support.


            Sitting just above the entrance to the open-air arcade of the queue, perched on the roof, is an aesthetic (and functional) feature known as a bellcote, or in Spanish, as an espadaña.  A bellcote was usually found on churches, missions, and forts, and could feature up to three large bells used to signal different events. The bellcote sitting atop the queue is not functional, of course, but rather elicits the colonial Spanish architectural feel of the attraction.

            The large clock tower that stands guard before the entrance of the queue is of distinctly colonial Dominican design. Rising to twenty feet and capped with a pyramidal prism, this rectangular tower was often used as a part of church and mission architecture during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. These towers rarely had clocks in them, however, but instead housed large bells, similar to the bellcote, to signal parishioners and villagers of different events.

Note the columns, arches, decorative clay tiles, and bellcote perched atop the entrance (image from early 2000s).


Interior Architecture

            The architecture of building facades throughout the ride are also consistent with designs being used throughout seventeenth, and eighteenth century Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic. Take, for example, the scene where guests first see the landing party dunking the mayor in the well, trying to find out the whereabouts of the town’s treasure and Jack Sparrow. The exterior of the buildings are made of a stucco material, consistent with architecture throughout the Caribbean during the Gothic period. The buildings are roofed with red clay tiles, which were used throughout Cuba. On the ground floor of the building behind the pirates dunking the mayor, arches crowned with transverse masonry are used once again. The windows of the building are recessed, and have sash shutters, which were prevalent with architecture throughout the Dominican Republic. An example of the evidence of sash shutters in this scene is where the brave wife of Carlos (the town mayor) leans out of the open window above the well and yells at her husband, “Be brave Carlos, don’t be cheekin!” Balconies stretch along the upper stories of the buildings, lined by metal banisters and railings, which was used in Puerto Rican architecture.


            A second example of Gothic architecture in the Spanish Caribbean colonies that is accurate throughout the attraction is the “Wench-for-a-Bride Auction” scene. Once again, guests find red clay tiles used for roofing behind the women waiting to be auctioned off. Sash shutters can be found covering the windows on the second floor of the buildings in this scene, as well. Across the canal from the auction sit various pirates, attempting to bid for the potential brides. Behind the pirates, once again, are transverse mason arches, stone blocks situated in a way to evenly distribute the weight and pressure of the heavy stone walls. Balconies with decorative metal railings found in Puerto Rico are used here, as well, with sash shutters covering the doorways opening onto the balconies.


            There are other architectural details that are historically accurate throughout the attraction. Covered walkways native to the Dominican Republic stretch through the town in the scene where the pirates are chasing chickens and being chased by rolling-pin-wielding women. Heavy, rectangular towers tipped with domes and supposedly housing bells, also native to the Dominican, sporadically rise behind buildings throughout the town. Sash shuttered windows, covered public walkways, balconies beneath overhanging eaves, red clay tiled roofs, and transverse mason arches can be found throughout the scene where the drunken pirates sing to the guests while the town burns to the ground around them.


            Whether it is the way arches are lined with stones set in a way to equally distribute the weight and pressure of the stucco walls, the wooden sash coverings over windows, the red clay tiles on the roofs, or the balconies that hang over the show scenes, the architecture throughout the interior of the attraction reflects historical accuracy of the Spanish Caribbean colonies during the Gothic period of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.



Queue and Loading

            The queue of Pirates of the Caribbean contains highly detailed scenery and set pieces that transport guests back in time. After passing through the open air nave arcade entryway of the attraction entrance, guests pass through heavy wooden double doors and into the Spanish fort. The queue is lit by small lanterns placed sporadically. While these lanterns are powered by electricity, during the seventeen hundreds, these passageways would be lit by candlelight and torches, creating a similar dimness throughout the halls. Due to modern fire safety laws, real fire torches and candlelight was not used to brighten these dark passageways.


            Not surprisingly, transverse mason archways are used throughout the passageways, keeping the architecture of the attraction consistent. The dark and dankness of the queue, while maintained by the modern use of dim lighting and air conditioning, creates the sense of being deep within the Spanish fort. In fact, during the Spanish colonial period, the Castillo del Morro had walls that were up to eighteen feet thick, preventing attackers from being able to blast cannon balls through the walls or easily dig their way through the walls and into the forts.


            Similar to medieval castles, different portions of forts had different uses. The queue winds its way through numerous rooms of the fort. One section that the line runs through is the armory. This room contains piles of cannon balls and numerous cannons. Some of the cannons are pointed out of holes in the walls to ward off invaders. Most armories would be deep within the fort and beneath ground level to prevent enemy fire from entering the room. If a cannon ball from enemy fire had entered the hole in the wall and landed among barrels of gun powder, the resulting explosion would have blown the entire room apart, exposing the interior of the fort to the outside and allowing invaders to enter the fort. However, colonial forts did have rooms similar to this near the exterior wall to repel invaders.

Cannons like these in the fort's armory pointed outward to ward off any enemies that may approach.


            Another portion of the fort that the queue passes through is the dungeon. This dungeon presents some historical inaccuracies. The first inaccuracy is its position in the fort. The dungeon is located adjacent to the exterior wall of the fort, where the queue “exits” the fort and into the “town” where guests load onto the ride vehicles. Dungeons would also be towards the middle of the fort and below ground level. If a dungeon was on the exterior wall, and a cannon ball crashed through the wall, it would create a hole allowing prisoners to escape. Also, a dungeon on the exterior wall would allow prisoners to escape through the windows of the cell, if the prisoner was lucky enough to saw through the iron bars over the windows. Another historical inaccuracy of the dungeon is the position of the prisoners within the cell. One of the well-known scenes of the queue is that of the prisoners’ skeletons seated at a chess board. Instead of allowing prisoners to move freely throughout the cell, prisoners would instead be chained to the walls, either hanging by their wrists or thumbs, their feet not touching the ground. However, to add humor to the attraction and in order to keep its family-friendly status that Disney is famous for, the attraction’s creators opted to place the skeletons at the famous, unwinnable chess board.


            Upon “exiting” the fort, guests find themselves in a small port town through which a canal runs inland. Because the main form of transportation of goods during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries involved shipping, towns would be located along rivers, streams, and canals. When goods were produced, they would be put onto canal boats, called bateaux (French for “boats”, bateau is singular form, pronounced “bah-toe”), and shipped toward the port, a small town located where the river meets the ocean. From there, the cargo would be unloaded from the smaller boat and onto a ship bound for the Americas, Europe, or other island colonies.


            A bateau was a shallow, flat-bottomed boat that is pointed at both ends. By making the boat shallow and flat-bottomed, colonists were able to load heavy cargo into the boats. Bateaux could also carry between one and twenty men, depending on the size of the boat. The average size of the bateau was approximately six feet in width and forty-five to sixty feet long, with an approximate depth of three feet. Bateaux were moved either by the rowing of occupants or by floating slowly on the river’s currents until anchored at a destination. Bateaux could also be used to carry travelers up- or down-river to explore, or in the case of pirates, to maraud and terrorize.


            Interestingly, the ride vehicles for the attraction are modified versions of bateaux. Comparing the historical bateau to the ride vehicles in Pirates of the Caribbean, we find many similarities and a few very minor differences. The ride vehicles are also shallow, flat-bottomed boats ending in a point at both ends. The ride vehicles are able to carry heavy loads of cargo (passengers). The ride vehicles are approximately six feet wide and are about thirty feet long, with a depth of about three feet. The ride vehicle bateaux also float with the current of the ride path. While historical bateaux could carry approximately twenty men, the ride vehicles can carry up to twenty-four passengers, with four passengers in each row.


            Immediately prior to loading on the ride vehicles, guests pass a cave, situated to their right. Guests can’t see deep into the cave, but rather can see flickering torchlight and hear the sounds of someone digging in the sand for treasure. This is also somewhat accurate. While burying treasure was not as prevalent as treasure being sunken in ships, there are historical records of some pirates burying their treasure. One example is that of the Puerto Rican pirate, Roberto Cofresí, who, after giving a portion of his treasure to the needy of his village and spending a portion of his own share, buried the rest in caves for safe keeping until his return.


            After boarding their bateaux ride vehicles, guests pass through a series of caves, through a “waterfall” from which Davy Jones from Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest appears and warns the guests. Because the forts along the coasts of Spanish colonies were built high up on rocky cliffs, caves leading to underground rivers and harbors were real, but were a rare find.

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To read more about Pirates of the Caribbean and other Magic Kingdom attractions, pick up a copy of A Historical Tour of Walt Disney World Vol. 1 here!

Read about Spaceship Earth, Storybook Circus, the Country Bear Jamboree and more by picking up a copy of A Historical Tour of Walt Disney World Vol. 2 here!